eFlite Glossary of Terms

Glossary of Terms

A/C Config.

The Aircraft Configuration identifies the available seat configuration(s) in the aircraft module. Many customers request multiple configurations that automatically adjust BEW or BOW values and the seat and cargo layout on the W&B Record. Multi-Seat configurations can be added at any time so Contact Us to schedule the customization time.

A/C Reg.

The Aircraft Registration Number is assigned by an aviation authority and is used to identify the aircraft. An aircraft registration number is sometimes referred to as the tail number. eFlite uses A/C Reg. to automatically adjust Empty Weight values in fleet software according to the aircraft selected.

A/C Type

The Aircraft Type identifies the aircraft module and the type of data files the user can import into the program. For example, a Beech 1900D aircraft module cannot open flight planning files for a Dornier 328JET.

AFM

The Airplane Flight Manual is an approved document, prepared by the holder of a Type Certificate for an aircraft, that specifies the operating limitations and contains the required markings and placards and other information applicable to the regulations under which the aircraft was certificated. The AFM should be reviewed on a regular basis and ALWAYS be kept within arms length of the pilot.

Aft Limit

The Aft Limit is the farthest distance the calculated CG should ever be located from the Datum to maintain safe flight. The Aft Limit can vary according to weight and is determined by the aircraft manufacturer. Passenger and/or baggage loads should be moved toward the front of the aircraft if the software indicates a WARNING as a result of the Aft Limit being exceeded.

ARM

An ARM is the horizontal distance from the reference datum to the center of gravity (CG) of an item. The algebraic sign is plus (+) if measured aft of the datum or to the right side of the center line when considering a lateral calculation. The algebraic sign is minus (-) if measured forward of the datum or the left side of the center line when considering a lateral calculation.

BEW

The Basic Empty Weight is the weight of a completely empty aircraft with engine oil at the full mark and only non-usable fuel in the tanks. BEW does not include the weight of a crew, passengers, baggage, usable fuel or anything else that may be in a cabinet, on a shelf or the floor.

BOW

The Basic Operating Weight is the BEW plus the weight of a crew and their provisions. Think of BOW as everything necessary to complete a flight minus the fuel, passengers and baggage.

Centroid

The Centroid is used for weight and balance purposes and the distance from the datum to the center of a compartment or fuel tank.

CG

The Center of Gravity is the point at which an airplane would balance if suspended. Its distance from the reference datum is determined by dividing the total moment by the total weight of the airplane. It is the mass center of the aircraft, or the theoretical point at which the entire weight of the aircraft is assumed to be concentrated. It may be expressed in percent of MAC (mean aerodynamic cord) or in inches from the reference datum.

Datum

The Datum is a point from which all horizontal measurements on the aircraft are made. There is no fixed rule for the location of the datum but in many cases it is either located on the nose of the aircraft or the firewall.

Flight No.

The Flight Number refers to any designation assigned by the carrier to identify a particular flight.

Fwd Limit

The Fwd Limit is the farthest forward point the calculated CG should ever be to maintain safe flight. The Fwd Limit can vary according to weight and is determined by the aircraft manufacturer. Passenger and/or baggage loads should be moved toward the rear of the aircraft if the software indicates a WARNING as a result of the Fwd Limit being exceeded.

Galley

The Galley is a term commonly used to describe the refreshment center located on many larger aircraft.

Load Manifest or Schedule

Creating a Load Manifest is a critical part of planning a flight for hire. Subpart B of the FAA Part 135 regulations states:

ß 135.63 Recordkeeping Requirements.

(a) ...

(b) ...

(c) For multiengine aircraft, each certificate holder is responsible for the preparation and accuracy of a load manifest in duplicate containing information concerning the loading of the aircraft. The manifest must be prepared before each takeoff and must include -

  1. The number of passengers;
  2. The total weight of the loaded aircraft;
  3. The maximum allowable takeoff weight for that flight;
  4. The center of gravity limits;
  5. The center of gravity of the loaded aircraft, except the actual center of gravity need not be computed if the aircraft is loaded according to a loading schedule or other approved method that ensures the center of gravity of the loaded aircraft is within approved limits. In those cases, an entry shall be made on the manifest indicating the center of gravity is within limits according to a loading schedule or other approved method;
  6. The registration of the aircraft or flight number;
  7. The origin and destination; and
  8. Identification of crew members and their crew position assignments.

(d) The pilot in command of the aircraft for which a load manifest must be prepared shall carry a copy of the completed load manifest in the aircraft to the destination. The certificate holder shall keep copies of completed load manifest for at least 30 days at its principal operations base, or at another location used by it and approved by the Administrator.

LW

The Landing Weight is the calculated aircraft weight upon landing as determined from user entered data and displayed on the Load Summary and CG Envelope.

MALW

The Maximum Allowable Landing Weight is the maximum aircraft weight permitted during landing as determined by the most restrictive of the following requirements:

  1. Maximum Certificated Landing Weight;
  2. Maximum Landing Weight (Approach Climb or Brake Energy Limited);
  3. Maximum Landing Weight for runway length available.

MATW

The Maximum Allowable Take-Off Weight is the maximum aircraft weight permitted during take-off as determined by the most restrictive of the following requirements:

  1. Maximum Certificated Takeoff Weight;
  2. Maximum Takeoff Weight to meet minimum single-engine climb gradients and not exceed brake energy limits (Climb or Brake Energy Limited);
  3. Maximum Takeoff Weight for runway length available; or
  4. Maximum Takeoff Weight for obstacle clearance.

MLW

The Maximum Landing Weight is the maximum gross weight permitted when landing as certificated by the aircraft manufacturer. Multi-engine, turboprop and jet aircraft typically have a MLW that is less than the MTOW while most single engine aircraft typically have a MLW and MTOW that are identical. For example, a King Air C-90 has a MTOW of 9,650 pounds with a MLW of 9,168 pounds and the Bonanza A-36 has a MTOW and MLW of 3,650 pounds.

MRW

The Maximum Ramp Weight is the maximum gross weight permitted on the ramp as certificated by the aircraft manufacturer. Turboprop and jet aircraft typically have a MRW that is slightly higher than the MTOW with the difference being the weight of the fuel burned during startup, taxi and runup. Most multi-engine and single engine piston aircraft typically have a MRW that is equal to the MTOW. The MRW is not displayed when it is not provided in an AFM and POH or identical to the MTOW.

MTOW

The Maximum Take-Off Weight is the maximum gross weight permitted during take-off as certificated by the aircraft manufacturer. The upper weight limit displayed on the CG Envelope diagram would be the MTOW for your aircraft.

MZFW

The Maximum Zero Fuel Weight is the maximum authorized weight of an aircraft without fuel and includes the empty weight of the aircraft and everything that will be carried on the flight except the weight of the fuel. For example, a Cessna Citation II (S/N 550-0001 through 550-0549 ) has a MZFW of 9,500 pounds which means the combined weight of the unfueled aircraft, crew, passengers and baggage must never exceed 9,500 pounds.

No. Pax or Occupants

The Number of Passengers refers to the total number of people on board not acting as a crew member when using an Operating Weight configuration. Occupants refers to the total number of people on board the aircraft that includes passengers and crew members when using an Empty Weight configuration.

Payload

The Payload is the total weight of passengers, baggage and cargo.

Percent MAC

The Percent Mean Aerodynamic Chord is typically used on larger aircraft to express the Center of Gravity location and limits in a the form of a percentage of the manufacturers defined chord versus of a distance from the Datum.

PIC

The abbreviation stands for Pilot in Command.

POH

The Pilot Operating Handbook is an approved document published by the airframe manufacturer that lists the operating conditions for a particular model of aircraft and its engine(s). The POH should be reviewed on a regular basis and ALWAYS be kept within arms length of the pilot seat.

Ramp Wt

The Ramp Weight is the weight of the aircraft prior to start-up, run-up and taxi and includes BEW and the weight of all crew members, passengers, baggage and fuel.

Seats & Baggage

Seat 1, Seat 2, Seat 3 and so on refers to the passenger seating available in the aircraft starting from the passenger area in the front of the aircraft and moving toward the rear as indicated in the Pilot Operating Handbook. Certain eFlite customizations also include Seat J for a jump seat and/or Seat T for lavatory seat locations. Quick and easy loading using standard passenger weights is accomplished by clicking on the adjacent BLUE buttons. Baggage locations are typically identified as Fwd Bags for the forward baggage area and Aft Bags for the aft baggage area. In addition, some aircraft may also identify cargo and baggage loading stations as Wing Lockers, Nose Baggage, Storage Bays or even Aft Cargo. Be sure to take advantage of the miniature popups that display the ARM for the loading station being used. The popups are easily utilized by placing the mouse over the loading station and waiting about a second for the text to appear: on the Mobile Edition you need to "tap and hold" the station. The popup text indicates the name of the loading station and its corresponding ARM.

SIC

The Second in Command is the copilot.

Taxi Fuel

Taxi Fuel is fuel used during start-up, taxi and run-up procedures. The Taxi Fuel value is entered according to its weight.

TOW

The Takeoff Weight is the calculated takeoff weight as determined from user entered data and displayed in Load Summary and on the CG Envelope.

Trip Fuel

The Trip Fuel for turbo-prop and jet aircraft is typically defined as the total weight of fuel consumed by the aircraft from the time it takes off until the time it lands. For example, a Beech 1900D will have a Trip Fuel of 680 pounds during its flight from PIA to MKE. Trip Fuel for piston aircraft is typically defined as the total number of gallons of the fuel consumed by the aircraft from the time it takes off until the time it lands. For example, a Cessna 414 will have a Trip Fuel of 68 gallons of fuel during its flight from PIA to MKE. Trip Fuel values do not include Taxi Fuel.

Usable Fuel

The Usable Fuel is the total amount of fuel available in the fuel tanks that can be consumed by the engine. Un-drainable fuel is already included in the BEW and would not be included with the Usable Fuel figures. For example, a Bonanza holds 80 gallons of fuel but only 74 gallons are considered Usable Fuel.

ZFW

The Zero Fuel Weight is the Basic Empty Weight plus crew members, passengers and baggage. Usable fuel weight is not included in ZFW calculations.

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